Access Restriction


Degree Name

Doctorate in Education



School or College

School of Education

First Advisor

Magaly Lavadenz, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Marta Baltodano, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Martha McCarthy, Ph.D.


Nearly 25,000 graduating high school students across California have earned state recognition for achieving proficiency in multiple languages in 2014. This exploratory, mixed-methods study investigated the early implementation of the State Seal of Biliteracy (SSB) in California. Sixty-two district personnel were surveyed, three SSB directors were interviewed, and a document review was conducted. Overall, the study revealed four themes that influence the implementation of the SSB at the district level: Intentional Creation of an Ecology of Biliteracy, Developing Notions for Biliteracy Scripts and Assessment, Privileging Sequential Biliteracy Development—Scarcity of Biliteracy Pathways, and Individual and Collective Agency for Biliteracy. Hornberger’s (2003) continua of biliteracy was used as a theoretical framework to analyze this study’s findings.