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This project sought to characterize plant defense investment in the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), an exotic myrmecophyte in southern California, with respect to life history strategies. Experimental evidence suggests that exotic myrmecophytes can form mutually beneficial associations with exotic ants regardless of the differences in shared evolutionary histories. Castor bean plant investment in defense was evaluated by measuring the area on extra-floral nectary (EFN) glands. Life history strategies may change with respect to plant size and was therefore evaluated in terms of basal stem diameter (

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Line, Stephen. Hong, Kevin. Carmona-Galindo, Victor. 2013. "The Relationship Between Castor Bean Stem Diameter and Extrafloral Nectary Gland Size." BIOS 84(2): 98-100.

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