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Hummingbirds act as important pollinator species in many Western Hemisphere ecosystems. In urban environments, artificial feeders have become an important food resource.1 Without artificial feeders, hummingbirds move around to different flowers locations to find nectar and thus may be less predictable to a predator. However, as feeders provide abundant food, hummingbirds often habitually return to the same feeder. This provides a unique opportunity to predators. If hummingbirds are not able to properly identify or respond to threats near a feeder, they are likely more susceptible to predation. This may significantly affect hummingbird demographics in urban areas and/or apply selective pressure towards behaviors that minimize predation. In this study, various predators and threats are presented at established feeder sites using both artificial predator decoys and vocalizations. Visitation rates are monitored using video cameras in order to analyze and interpret responses. This investigation aims to enrich the understanding of the broader impacts artificial hummingbird feeders may have within the urban environment.

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Hummingbird Responses to Predator Decoys