Download Full Text (5.6 MB)


Hummingbirds act as important plant pollinators. In an urban environment, artificial feeders have become an important food resource. 1 Without artificial feeders, hummingbirds would be forced to move around to different flower locations to find nectar and thus be less predictable to a predator. However, as feeders provide consistent food, hummingbirds often habitually return to the same feeder. This provides a unique opportunity to predators. If hummingbirds are not able to properly identify or respond to threats near a feeder, they are likely more susceptible to predation. This may significantly affect hummingbird demographics in urban areas and/or apply selective pressure towards behaviors that minimize predation. In this study, various predators and threats are presented at established feeder sites using both artificial predator decoys and vocalizations, then analyzed and interpreted. This investigation aims to develop a better understanding of the broader impacts of artificial hummingbird feeders within the urban environment.

Publication Date


Hummingbird	Responses to Predator Decoys