In this investigation we explored among a U.S. sample of White college students the effect of perceived race-informed culpability--conceptualized as the self-conscious emotions known as White guilt and shame--on two critical multicultural education outcomes: modern prejudicial attitudes and demonstrated anti-racist knowledge. Interaction effects by participants' racial identity were also examined. Moderated hierarchical linear regression showed that the tendency to experience White guilt as well as White shame explained a significant portion of the variability in racist attitudes. For knowledge, only guilt had an effect. No interaction effects were observed. Limitations are discussed followed by implications for teaching and learning with an emphasis on affect-sensitive pedagogy.
Estrada, Fernando, and Geneva Matthews. “Perceived Culpability in Critical Multicultural Education: Understanding and Responding to Race Informed Guilt and Shame to Further Learning Outcomes among White American College Students.” International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, vol. 28, no. 3, Jan. 2016, pp. 314–325.