Date of Award

Summer July 2013

Access Restriction


Degree Name

Doctorate in Education



School or College

School of Education

First Advisor

Edmundo F. Litton

Second Advisor

Franca Dell'Olio

Third Advisor

Philip Molebash


Despite advancements in the search of equity, females still struggle to find acceptance in the field of information and communication technology. Research indicates that differences in perception of ability of ICT use begin to manifest in the middle school level. This mixed methods study explored the experiences and perceptions of 46 middle school females and males to expose possible influential factors about the use of ICT by females. The dissertation study occurred in two phases. The first phase involved a survey that was given to the entire middle school. Data from the survey provided participants for the second phase, which involved a focus group discussion with six female students in grades 7 and 8 to examine influential factors in the use of ICT. Findings indicated statistically significant differences between males and females exist at the study site. Females were more likely to (a) access ICT at the after school program and at a relative’s house; (b) identify a relative as an important influence in ICT; (c) share created media; (d) declare higher experience with Photoshop; (e) seek medicine as potential career and less likely to (f) report building a robot or invention using technology; (d) use ICT to play multi-user online games; (f) express interest in action, competition, and graphics in games (h) know terms such as firewall and torrent; (i) pursue careers as computer programmers, engineers, or computer game designers than their male counterparts. The findings support the need for school leadership establishing or enhancing a technology integration program to consider the difference between males and females as foundational cornerstone in the technology integration program.