Date of Award


Access Restriction


Degree Name

Doctorate in Education



School or College

School of Education

First Advisor

Martha McCarthy

Second Advisor

Jill Bickett

Third Advisor

Candace Poindexter


Teacher education enrollment has decreased 74% since 2013. Simultaneously, attrition rates have increased, with 20-50% of new teachers quitting within the first five years. These combined factors have brought California into a new teacher shortage, necessitating fast-track pathways to credentialing. Fast tracks and lowering of requirements often result in teachers not being prepared to teach as they begin their careers, and as data illustrates, children in high-poverty communities of color are those who are predominantly taught by non-credentialed teachers. This dissertation is a historical policy study on how educational policies enacted in California to address shortage have affected the supply and demand of teachers and how effective these policies have been in terms of recruitment and retention. Findings revealed a search for balance between maintaining high standards for teacher education, while still meeting the needs of the field through creating alternative pathways to credentialing. An interpretive analysis of these policies and corresponding data informed the formulation of a set of recommendations, including the need to increase retention through ensuring high quality teacher education and ensuring the support of new teachers. The residency model is one recommended approach that increases the clinical component of teacher education while making it more affordable. Also recommended is greater attention to making compensation competitive with other fields, as well as increasing financial assistance for tuition and providing housing subsidies. A last recommendation is to create a state-wide database to track teachers and their career paths in order to maintain a greater understanding of the field.