A case study involving surface smoothing of titanium foil was obtained from a solar cell research company. It was believed that the rougher surface of metals was responsible for low solar cell efficiency when using titanium foil rather than glass as a substrate. A method was needed to reduce the surface asperity height of the titanium foil from the existing 1 μm to less than 0.1 μm. Several methods were investigated. The recommended method was the use of an excimer laser, a laser powered by excited noble gas-halide molecules as a lasing medium.
R. Nishimuro and O. Es-Said, “Surface Modification of Titanium Foil Substrates in Experimental Solar Cells”, J. of Communications in Reliability, Maintainability and Supportability, Vol. 3(2), 1996, pp. 70-72.