Spending without Taxation: FILP and the Politics of Public Finance in Japan
Governments confront difficult political choices when they must determine how to balance their spending. But what would happen if a government found a means of spending without taxation? In this book, Gene Park demonstrates how the Japanese government established and mobilized an enormous off-budget spending system, the Fiscal Investment Loan Program (FILP), which drew on postal savings, public pensions, and other funds to pay for its priorities and reduce demands on the budget.
Park, Gene. Spending without Taxation: FILP and the Politics of Public Finance in Japan, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press (2011).