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Recent research has explored differences in the experiences of women and men public officials. Overlooked in these examinations is the position of city manager-a significant position in terms of local administration and policy development. Current figures indicate that women are underrepresented in the field of city management when compared with their peers in the private sector and federal and stale administration-women hold only 11% of city manager positions. In trying to explain women 's apparent underrepresentation, the authors explore the importance of mentoring in the public sector using data gathered from a nationwide study of women and men city managers. Their data suggest that mentoring in the city management profession is characterized by factors that appear to work against women. These factors, which include a vacuum of professional mentoring opportunities, may help explain the slow inclusion of women into the field of city management.
Fox, Richard L. "Mentoring Experiences of Women City Managers: Are Women Disadvantaged?" American Review of Public Administration, vol. 31, no. 4.