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Theios (1972) has proposed that during classical eyelid conditioning the conditioned response protocols of “voluntary” responders (Vs) will require an additional stage, relative to “conditioned” responders (Cs), to be adequately described. In a test of this hypothesis, individual subject protocols from eyelid conditioning experiments using both classical and avoidance modes of reinforcement were subjected to finite integer analysis (Theios, 1968). During both modes of reinforcement, a two-state Markov model was found to provide an adequate description of most individual protocols for both Cs and Vs. In addition, there were no indications that Vs give predominantly C-form conditioned responses at the beginning of an experimental session and switch to predominantly V-form conditioned responses later in the session. Both of these results indicate that Theios’ hypothesis is inaccurate at the level of the individual human subject.

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Hellige, J.B. Finite integer analysis of individual subject protocols during eyelid conditioning. Bull. Psychon. Soc. 7, 148–150 (1976).

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