Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines for Subsistence Marketplaces

This document provides details on typesetting and layout requirements pertaining to final manuscript submission to Subsistence Marketplaces.

Formatting Requirements

  • Write your article in English.
  • Begin the document with a title page with no identifying information, the abstract (150 words maximum), and the main document with all exhibits and references; include page numbers.
  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word, RTF, or PDF files are accepted).
  • Page size should be 8.5 x 11-inches.
  • All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), including your tables and figures.
  • Double space your text throughout.
  • Use a single column layout with left margin justified.
  • Font:
    1. Main Body—12 pt. Times New Roman
    2. Footnotes—10 pt. Times New Roman
  • If figures are included, use high-resolution figures, preferably encoded as encapsulated PostScript (eps).
  • Copyedit your manuscript.
  • When possible, there should be no pages where more than a quarter of the page is empty space.

Additional Recommendations

Indenting, Line Spacing, and Justification

Indent all paragraphs except those following a section heading. An indent should be at least 2 em-spaces.

Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text with the exception of long quotations, theorems, propositions, special remarks, etc. These should be set off from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.

Don't "widow" or "orphan" text (i.e., ending a page with the first line of a paragraph or beginning a page with the last line of a paragraph).

All text should be left-justified (i.e., flush with the left margin—except where indented).

Language & Grammar

All submissions must be in English. Exceptions are foreign words and phrases that are commonly used or convey cultural notions.

Authors should use proper, standard English grammar. The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White (now in its fourth edition) is the "standard" guide, but other excellent guides exist as well.


For references, please follow APA guidelines.


Article Length

Article lengths are based on type of submission and denoted in appropriate word limits. Authors may use separate appendices to present additional material.

Word Limit

Colored text

Set the font color to black for the majority of the text. We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, etc., however, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black & white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible.

Please ensure that there are no colored mark-ups or comments in the final version, unless they are meant to be part of the final text. (You may need to "accept all changes" in track changes or set your document to "normal" in final markup.)

Emphasized text

Whenever possible use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. The use of color to emphasize text is discouraged.

Font faces

Except, possibly, where special symbols are needed, use Times or the closest comparable font available.

Font size

The main body of text should be set in 12pt. Avoid the use of fonts smaller than 6pt.

Foreign terms

Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.


Main Section Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text in Times New Roman. The text must be in all caps, bold and centered. There should be space above and below headings.

Secondary Headings

should be left tabbed with the first letter of each word in caps and all text in bold. There should be no space above and below subheadings.

Tertiary Headings

should be left tabbed with the first letter of each word in caps and all text underlined (not bold). There should be no space above and below subheadings.

Main text

The font for the main body of text must be black and, it at all possible, in Times New Roman.


Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.


Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page on which they are referenced rather than at the end of the paper. Footnotes should be in 10 pt. Times or closest comparable font available, they should be single spaced, and there should be a footnote separator rule (line). Footnote numbers or symbols in the text must follow, rather than precede, punctuation. Excessively long footnotes are probably better handled in an appendix. All footnotes should be left and right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin), unless this creates awkward spacing.

Tables and Figures

To the extent possible, tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. In no case should tables or figures be in a separate document or file. All tables and figures must fit within 1.5" margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view.


Roman letters used in mathematical expressions as variables should be italicized. Roman letters used as part of multi-letter function names should not be italicized. Whenever possible, subscripts and superscripts should be a smaller font size than the main text.

Short mathematical expressions should be typed inline. Longer expressions should appear as display math. Also expressions using many different levels (e.g., such as the fractions) should be set as display math. Important definitions or concepts can also be set off as display math.

Equations should be numbered sequentially. Whether equation numbers are on the right or left is the choice of the author(s). However, you are expected to be consistent in this.

Symbols and notation in unusual fonts should be avoided. This will not only enhance the clarity of the manuscript, but it will also help insure that it displays correctly on the reader's screen and prints correctly on her printer. When proofing your document under PDF pay particular attention to the rendering of the mathematics, especially symbols and notation drawn from other than standard fonts.

Videos and Pictures

To be determined.

Abstracting and Indexing Information

To be determined.

Multi-Modal Forms

To be determined.


To be determined.


To be determined.

Inclusive Language

Harmful or distressing images - policy for putting disclaimers that this image may be harmful or distressing.

Best practice wording: Authors must use inclusive language that is respectful to all people, acknowledges diversity, is sensitive to the differences of others and expresses equal opportunity. We advise gender-neutral language throughout with the use of "they" instead of "he/she"; "person or individual" instead of "man/woman" and plural nouns "patients/clients," "clinicians" as default.

Please see sample sites below -https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/gender-inclusive-language/ https://www.bu.edu/brand/guidelines/editorial-style/inclusive-language/

process: Each submission will be blind reviewed by relevant subject specialists and experts who will indicate the strength of a paper on various elements (e.g., methods, data, literature review, discussion, etc.