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This study applied social exchange theory as a conceptual framework to examine the effectiveness of various types of mentors and mentor support on protgs' satisfaction with their mentors, jobs, and perceived career success. Participants were 142 ethnically diverse protgs in informal mentoring relationships. It was found that role modeling, reciprocity, and vocational support predicted protgs' satisfaction with their mentors. Vocational support was a significant predictor of protgs' job satisfaction and perceived career success. Protgs were more satisfied with, had higher job satisfaction, and reported that traditional mentors provided significantly more vocational and role modeling support than peer or step-ahead mentors.
Ensher, Ellen & Thomas, Craig & Murphy, Susan. (2001). Comparison of Traditional, Step-Ahead, and Peer Mentoring on Protégés' Support, Satisfaction, and Perceptions of Career Success: A Social Exchange Perspective. Journal of Business and Psychology. 15. 419-438.